Lithuanian lands were united under Mindaugas in 1236. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe: present-day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. Lithuania regained its independence following World War I but was annexed by the USSR in 1940. On 11 March 1990, Lithuania became the first of the Soviet republics to declare its independence, but Moscow did not recognize this proclamation until September of 1991. Lithuania subsequently restructured its economy for integration into Western European institutions; it joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
Lithuania, officially the Republic of Lithuania, is a country in Northern Europe, the largest of the three Baltic States. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark. It borders Latvia to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland to the south, and a Russian exclave (Kaliningrad Oblast) to the southwest. Lithuania covers an area of 65,200 km2, thus it is roughly larger than the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark or Switzerland. The geographic center of Europe is situated in Lithuania, 26 kilometers north from the capital city Vilnius.
Since Lithuania declared the restoration of its independence on 11 March 1990, it has maintained strong democratic traditions. It is a parliamentary republic with some semi-presidential features. Lithuania is a member state of the United Nations, the European Union, the Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, NATO with its adjunct North Atlantic Coordinating Council and World Trade Organization.
Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika)
Form of government
February 16 (Day of Re-establishment of the State of Lithuania (1918), March 11 (Day of Restitution of Independence of Lithuania), July 6 (Statehood day)
Head of State
President Dalia Grybauskaitë (since 2009)
Unicameral Parliament or Seimas (141 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
Lithuania’s geographical position in the region enables the country to be active both from the north to the south and from the west to the east directions, and to use the advantages provided by its geographical position to the maximum extent possible. The Baltic region is a very important intersection point for both transport and trade roads in the middle of the European continent. Lithuania’s geographical position is convenient for transit, two recognized transport corridors of continental importance cross the country’s territory. The fact that Lithuania is a sea state with an ice-free Klaipeda port that has a modern container terminal is also very important for the development of transit.
Lithuanian litas (LTL) = 100 centas (ct); EUR 1,00 = LTL 3.4528
GDP (PPP, 2012)
63.653 billion USD (estimate)
GDP per capita (2012)
19,000 USD (estimate)
GDP growth (2012)
External trade (2011)
Exports: 33.3 billion USD (23.9 billion EUR)
Imports: 33.9 billion USD (24.3 billion EUR)
Unemployment rate (2012)
Chemical industry, textile, electronics, wood and paper processing, fertilizers, agriculture machinery
Double Taxation Treaty Lithuania - Switzerland (Lithuanian)
Double Taxation Treaty Lithuania - Switzerland (German)